CONNECT WITH PCRM
Cancer Facts: References
1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures—1997. Atlanta, GA: 1999.
2. Minamoto T, Mai M, Ronai Z. Environmental factors as regulators and effectors of multistep carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20(4):519-527.
3. Skog KI, Johansson MAE, Jagerstad MI. Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence, and intake. Food and Chem Toxicol. 1998;36:879-896.
4. Cummings JH, Bingham SA. Diet and the prevention of cancer. BMJ. 1998;317:1636-1640.
5. National Cancer Institute. Cancer Rates and Risks. Washington, DC: 1985.
6. Doll R, Peto R. The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J Natl Canc Inst. 1981;66:1191-1308.
7. Kromhout D. Essential micronutrients in relation to carcinogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45:1361-1367.
8. Block F. Epidemiologic evidence regarding vitamin C and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:1310S-1314S.
9. Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC: 1989.
10. Munoz de Chavez M, Chavez A. Diet that prevents cancer: recommendations from the American Institute for Cancer Research. Int J Cancer. 1998;11:85-89.
11. Watson RR, Prabhala RH, Plezia PM, Alberts DS. Effect of beta-carotene on lymphocyte subpopulations in elderly humans: evidence for a dose-response relationship. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:90-94.
12. Makinodan T, Lubinski J, Fong TC. Cellular, biochemical, and molecular basis of T-cell senescence. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1987;111:910-914.
13. Beisel WR. Single nutrients and immunity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;35(suppl):417-468.
14. Watson RR. Immunological enhancement by fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, and trace metals: a factor in cancer prevention. Cancer Detection and Prevention. 1986;9:67-77.
15. Chandra S, Chandra RK. Nutrition, immune response, and outcome. Progress in Food and Nutrition Science. 1986;10:1-65.
16. Barone J, Hebert JR, Reddy MM. Dietary fat and natural-killer cell activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;50:861-867.
17. Nordenstrom J, Jarstrand C, Wiernik A. Decreased chemotactic and random migration of leukocytes during intralipid infusion. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979;32:2416-2422.
18. Hawley HP, Gordon GB. The effects of long chain free fatty acids on human neutrophil function and structure. Lab Invest. 1976;34:216-222.
19. Endres S, Ghorbani R, Kelley VE, et al. The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:265-271.
20. Kelley DS, Branch LB, Love JE, Taylor PC, Rivera YM, Iacono JM. Dietary alpha-linoleic acid and immunocompetence in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:40-46.
21. von Schacky C, Fischer S, Weber PC. Long-term effect of dietary marine omega-3 fatty acids upon plasma and cellular lipids, platelet function, and eicosanoid formation in humans. J Clin Invest. 1985;76:1626-1631.
22. Malter M, Schriever G, Eilber U. Natural killer cells, vitamins, and other brood components of vegetarian and omnivorous men. Nutr Cancer. 1989;12:271-278.
23. Lauffer RB. Iron Balance. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
24. National Research Council. Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982.
25. Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer. 1975;15:617-631.
26. Hirayama T. Epidemiology of breast cancer with special reference to the role of diet. Prev Med. 1978;7:173-195.
27. Lands WEM, Hamazaki T, Yamazaki K, et al. Changing dietary patterns. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:991-993.
28. Carroll KK, Braden LM. Dietary fat and mammary carcinogenesis. Nutrition and Cancer. 1985;6:254-259.
29. Rose DP, Boyar AP, Wynder EL. International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer. 1986;58:2363-2371.
30. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. DHHS Publ No. 88-50210, 1988.
31. Rose DP, Boyar AP, Cohen C, Strong LE. Effect of a low-fat diet on hormone levels in women with cystic breast disease. 1. Serum steroids and gonadotropins. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987;78(4):623-626.
32. Ingram DM, Bennett FC, Willcox D, de Klerk N. Effect of low-fat diet on female sex hormone levels. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987;79:1225-1229.
33. Goldin BR, Gorbach SL. Effect of diet on the plasma levels, metabolism and excretion of estrogens. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48:787-790.
34. Toniolo P, Riboli E, Protta F, Charrel M, Cappa AP. Calorie-providing nutrients and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81:278.
35. Messina MJ, Barnes S. The role of soy products in reducing risk of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83:541-546.
36. Willet WC. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1987a;316:22-28.
37. Robbana-Barnat S, Rabache M, Rialland E, Fradin J. Heterocyclic amines: occurrence and prevention in cooked food. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104:280-288.
38. Thiebaud HP, Knize MG, Kuzmicky PA, Hsieh DP, Felton JS. Airborne mutagens produced by frying beef, pork, and a soy-based food. Food Chem Toxicol. 1995;33(10):821-828.
39. De Stefani E, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M, Guidobono M, Deneo-Pellegrini H. Meat intake, heterocyclic amines, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(8):573-581.
40. Matos EL, Thomas DB, Sobel N, Vuoto D. Breast cancer in Argentina: case-control study with special reference to meat eating habits. Neoplasma. 1991;38(3):357-366.
41. Howe GR, Hirohata T, Hislop T, et al. Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82:561-569.
42. Willett WC, Polk BF, Morris MJ, et al. Prediagnostic serum selenium levels and risk of cancer. Lancet. 1983;2:130-134.
43. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz FA, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:1174-1180.
44. Miller DR, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, et al. Breast cancer before age 45 and oral contraceptive use: new findings. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129:269.
45. Bergkvist L, Adami AO, Persson I, et al. The risk of breast cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. New Engl J Med. 1989;321:293.
46. Lubin F, Ruder AM, Wax Y, Modan B. Overweight and changes in weight throughout adult life in breast cancer etiology. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122:579-588.
47. Miller FA, Hempelmann LH, Dutton AM, Pifer JW, Toyooka ET, Ames WR. Breast neoplasms in women treated with X rays for acute postpartum mastitis. A pilot study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1969;43:803-811.
48. Lynch HT, Albano WA, Heieck JJ, et al. Genetics, biomarkers, and control of breast cancer: a review. Cancer, Genetics, and Cytogenetics. 1984;13:43-92.
49. Goldman BA. The Truth about Where You Live. New York: Random House, 1991.
50. Noren K. Levels of organochlorine contaminants in human milk in relation to the dietary habits of the mothers. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983;72:811-816.
51. Hergenrather J, Hlady G, Wallace B, Savage E. Pollutants in breast milk of vegetarians. Lancet. 1981;304:792.
52. Wynder EL, Escher GC, Mantel N. An epidemiological investigation of cancer of the endometrium. Cancer. 1966;19:489-520.
53. Elwood JM, Cole P, Rothman KJ, Kaplan SD. Epidemiology of endometrial cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1977;59:1055-1060.
54. Lingeman CH. Etiology of cancer of the human ovary: a review. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1974;53:1603-1618.
55. Cramer DW, Willett WC, Bell DA, et al. Galactose consumption and metabolism in relation to the risk of ovarian cancer. Lancet. 1989;2:66-71.
56. Breslow N, Chan CW, Dhom G, et al. Latent carcinoma of prostate at autopsy in seven areas. Int J Cancer. 1977;20:680-688.
57. Carter BS, Carter HB, Isaacs JT. Epidemiologic evidence regarding predisposing factors to prostate cancer. Prostate. 1990;16:187-197.
58. Howell MA. Factor analysis of international cancer mortality data and per capita food consumption. Br J Cancer. 1974;29:328-336.
59. Blair A, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1978;61:1379-1384.
60. Kolonel LN, Hankin JH, Lee J, Chu SY, Nomura AMY, Hinds MW. Nutrient intakes in relation to cancer incidence in Hawaii. Br J Cancer. 1981;44:332-339.
61. Rotkin ID. Studies in the epidemiology of prostatic cancer: expanded sampling. Cancer Treat Rep. 1977;61:173-180.
62. Schuman LM, Mandel JS, Radke A, Seal U, Halberg F. Some selected features of the epidemiology of prostatic cancer: Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota case control study, 1976-1979. In: Magnus K, ed. Trends in Cancer Incidence: Causes and Practical Implications. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1982.
63. Graham S, Haughey B, Marshall J, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of carcinoma of the prostate gland. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1983;70:687-692.
64. Ross RK, Shimizu H, Paganini-Hill A, Honda G, Henderson BE. Case-control studies of prostate cancer in blacks and whites in Southern California. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987;78:869-874.
65. Severson RK, Nomura AM, Grove JS, Stemmermann GN. A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. Cancer Research. 1989;49:1857-1860.
66. Oishi K, Okada K, Yoshida O, et al. A case control study of prostatic cancer with reference to dietary habits. Prostate. 1988;12:179-190.
67. Mettlin C, Selenskas S, Natarajan N, Huben R. Beta-carotene and animal fats and their relationship to prostate cancer risk: a case-control study. Cancer. 1989;64:605-612.
68. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, et al. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Science. 1998;279:563-565.
69. Hirayama T. Changing patterns of cancer in Japan with special reference to the decrease in stomach cancer mortality. In: Hiatt HH, Watson JD, Winsten JA, eds. Origins of Human Cancer. Book A, Incidence of Cancer in Humans. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1977. Pp 55-75.
70. Hirayama T. Epidemiology of prostate cancer with special reference to the role of diet. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1979;53:149-154.
71. Phillips RL. Role of lifestyle and dietary habits in risk of cancer among Seventh-day Adventists. Cancer Research. 1975;35:3513-3522.
72. Mills P, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Cohort study of diet, lifestyle, and prostate cancer in Adventist men. Cancer. 1989;64:598-604.
73. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. N Engl J Med. 1990;323:1664-1672.
74. Gerhardsson de Verdier M, Hagman U, Peters RK, Steineck G, Overvik E. Meat, cooking methods, and colorectal cancer: a case-referrent study in Stockholm. Int J Cancer. 1991;49:520-525.
75. Singh PN, Fraser GE. Dietary risk factors for colon cancer in a low-risk population. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(8):761-774.
76. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Willett WC. Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer. Cancer Res. 1994;54(9):2390-2397.
77. World Cancer Research Fund. Food, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. American Institute of Cancer Research. Washington, DC: 1997.
78. DeCosse JJ, Miller HH, Lesser ML. Effect of wheat fiber and vitamins C and E on rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81:1290-1297.
79. Wynder EL, Kajitani T, Kuno J, Lucas JC, Jr, DePalo A, Farrow J. A comparison of survival rates between American and Japanese patients with breast cancer. Surg Gynec Obstet. 1963;117:196-200.
80. Gregorio DI, Emrich LJ, Graham S, Marshall JR, Nemoto T. Dietary fat consumption and survival among women with breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1985;75:37-41.
81. LeMarchand L, Kolonel LN, Nomura AMY. Ethnic differences in survival after diagnosis of breast cancer—Hawaii. JAMA. 1985;254:2728.
82. Linden G. Letter to the editor. Int J Cancer. 1973;12:543.
83. Verreault R, Brisson J, Deschenes L, Naud F, Meyer F, Belanger L. Dietary fat in relation to prognostic indicators in breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988;80:819-825.
84. Newman SC, Miller AB, Howe CR. A study of the effect of weight and dietary fat on breast cancer survival time. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;123:767-774.
85. Holm LE, Callmer E, Hjalmar ML, Lidbrink E, Nilsson B, Skoog L. Dietary habits and prognostic factors in breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81:1218-1223.
86. Donegan WL, Hartz AJ, Rimm AA. The association of body weight with recurrent cancer of the breast. Cancer. 1978;41:1590-1594.
87. Schapira DV, Kumar NB, Lyman GH, Cox CE. Obesity and body fat distribution and breast cancer prognosis. Cancer. 1991;67:523-528.
Diet and Cancer Research
Ask the Expert
Classes & Events
Resources & Publications
Web Seminars & Podcasts